аЯрЁБс>ўџ 68ўџџџ5џџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџьЅС'` №ПЊ+bjbjLULU .6.?.?Њ#џџџџџџЄЄЄЄЄЄЄЄИАИпЖаааааааа^``````$
h§ЌЄю
ааю
ю
ЄЄааюююю
ІЄаЄа^юю
^ююЄЄюаФDnћZњЬ"юJЏ0пюЉЖ"ЉюЉЄю\аЎ~|юњd^ аааиааапю
ю
ю
ю
ИИИфИИИИИИЄЄЄЄЄЄџџџџIMPLEMENTING A CO-TEACHING PROGRAM AS A TIER 1 INTERVENTION
Response to Intervention (RtI) has become a topic of importance in the teaching of k-12 mathematics and reading. There are many RtI programs for k-12 reading and some RtI programs for k-8 mathematics, but there are very few RtI programs for 9-12 mathematics. The goal of this article is to share a 9-12 intervention that costs nothing, can be implemented immediately, and has proven to be effective. Before sharing this program, however, some background information about RtI is needed.
Response to Intervention
Response to Intervention is about ensuring that every student learns. A general model for teaching and learning can be summarized with the following equation:
Instruction + Time = Learning
In a traditional model, instruction and time are constant, and learning varies. Students who struggle with our traditional instruction or the time constraints of our traditional schedule are placed in alternate programs or simply fail. The students we place labels on may not be learning disabled, but rather instructionally disabled. Oftentimes students in low-track classes tend to repeat the same basic computational skills year after year, and never have access to high-level mathematics knowledge, ideas, and concepts.
In a Response to Iintervention model, learning is constant and instruction and time vary. In the era of the Common Core Standards, we know what learning is expected of every student. This learning cannot be compromised; therefore the way we teach and the time our students take to learn must be allowed to vary.
The specific interventions that are used with our students can be separated into three tiers. Tier one interventions, in general, can be described as high quality teaching and curriculum that are intended to meet the needs of the majority of our students. Tier two interventions are general education standard interventions for approximately 20% of our students that are intended to meet the needs of those students who need more time, or need to learn the material in a different manner. Tier three is individualized interventions for approximately 5% of our students. This is one-on-one assistance for the small group of students who need it.
Although most RtI programs and discussions focus on tier two and tier three interventions, the fact is that without good tier one interventions, nothing else that we do with and for our students matters. The success of tier two and tier three interventions is determined by the effectiveness of our tier one interventions. Any RtI program must assume high-quality instruction for all students.
One guiding principle of RtI, and of all education, is that instruction impacts achievement. The best place to address learning is not at the district office or in a curriculum meeting, but in the classroom. A second guiding principle of RtI is that when students are not achieving, we can adjust our instruction to improve their achievement. Our instruction must be viewed as being a flexible entity, and student learning must be constant for all students. A third guiding principle of RtI is that proactive interventions are much better than reactive interventions. Skip Fennel, in the book Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics tells us to think of RtI as an early-detection, prevention, and ongoing support system that identifies students and gives them the support they need before they fall behind (p. 4).
We all need to ask ourselves what we are doing in our own classrooms to ensure that every student learns. Too often our interventions involve programs outside of our classrooms. What are we doing inside of our classrooms every day to ensure that every student learns?
We know what makes a difference in student learning. Quality teachers and instructional strategies, access to a challenging curriculum, a caring supportive environment, and engaged students all positively impact student achievement.
What can we do to improve student learning? Students need more contact time with their teachers. Students need to be more engaged in their learning. Teachers need to maximize their time with their students. Any interventions that are implemented should be proactive and not reactive.
Oftentimes schools and districts are restricted and cannot make the changes that would help ensure student learning. Changing the school schedule to allow more time for mathematics is difficult and may be impossible. Lowering class sizes is not a feasible strategy; in fact, because of state budget cuts, class sizes are increasing. Because of this, hiring more teachers and educational assistants is also not an option. Creating a math resource class may not be a realistic option because of staffing, plus the impact this will have on elective programs in a school. The ideal situation would be to have two teachers in every entry-level mathematics class, but this ideal would seem impossible to achieve.
The Co-Teaching Program
We wanted to create a program at Oregon High School that would ensure that every student in our entry-level mathematics classes succeeds. The program that we use adds additional instructors in every freshman-level class without adding any staff. This program costs no money, is easy to implement, and can be started at any high school next year. It is a proactive tier one intervention that increases students proficiency rather than reactively trying to fill gaps in understanding. Additionally, this program has led to lower failure rates in our Algebra 1 classes.
At Oregon High School, we use a co-teaching program in the mathematics department to ensure that every student learns. Upper-level mathematics students are selected to serve as assistants, or co-teachers, to teachers of pre-algebra and Algebra 1 classes. The goals of the co-teaching program are to improve the achievement of entry-level students, to give the teacher of these classes a resource in the classroom, and to develop leadership skills for the co-teachers.
These students are recommended by their mathematics teachers and must apply to be a part of the program. Application questions ask students to state how their level of mathematical knowledge, leadership skills, and interpersonal skills will help them teach in the co-teaching program.
The co-teachers are placed in a pre-algebra or Algebra 1 class for the entire year. In this class they work with the teacher to create a team-teaching atmosphere. Co-teachers assist the teacher with a wide variety of teaching tasks including helping students individually or in small groups, teaching or guiding a whole-class activity while the regular teacher works with individuals, and generally being another set of eyes in the classroom and another content expert who the students can turn to.
Co-teachers also meet periodically before school to share success stories, investigate resources available to classroom teachers, and discuss teaching strategies. They are also required to keep a journal throughout the year, and to read one book in the field of education during the year.
Pre-algebra and Algebra 1 teachers in our school report that having a co-teacher in the classroom with them allows for more creative instructional strategies. Having another set of eyes, ears, and hands in the class allows these teachers to vary their instruction more often, and to attempt to meet the needs of every student.
To evaluate the success of the program, we compared the Algebra 1 failure rates of our students in the years before and after we implemented the co-teaching program. In the five years before the program was implemented, approximately 15% of all students enrolled in Algebra 1 received a failing grade. In the years since implementing the co-teaching program, the failure rate has dropped to 10%. There are many possible external explanations for this change, but all of the pre-algebra and Algebra 1 teachers in our school agree that the co-teaching program is a benefit to our school and department, and our students definitely learn more by having a co-teacher assist the regular teacher in the classroom.
Conclusion
The co-teaching program that we have implemented is a proactive tier one intervention that costs nothing, is easy to implement, and has been proven to be effective.
Remembering the model that Instruction + Time = Learning, the co-teaching program implemented at Oregon High School has been a successful tier one intervention. The program allows our teachers to vary their instruction to meet the needs of every learner. It also gives our students in entry-level courses more one-on-one time with their teacher and/or co-teacher. The co-teaching program is also a proactive intervention that allows us to address student learning before students fail. Most importantly, this program has helped a higher percentage of our students pass our entry-level classes.
Reference
Fennell, Francis Skip (ed.), Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, VA, 2011.
=Ж '
?
@
N
+
FМЩьЛ~NQ`bcКя№ІЇ[>ОПОдђќглоВГД б в К!Я!з!Љ"Ц"іђющсюнюйюйюйюнйнйнйнйнбнюђЭШђЭУЭђЭПЛПЛЖЛВйВЎВЎйЎЊІЊІЎВЂВЂйЂйh/vkh'`Ih")пh9єhz6hч! hч!>*hmуhњ?Т h_\6 h_\>*h_\h_\hУM>*h1hУMhmуhmу>* hmу>*hЭ~№h|"h|"5CJaJ><='
@
р
ў
GаdЇЕПмДв Ш"ь#5%їїыузззззззызззуууЫуууаdр`аgd")паdр`аgdЭ~№dрgdmуаdр`аgdmу$a$gd|"Њ+ўЦ"Ч"Ш"ы#ь#э#5%ќ'((Ў(g)+++,+a+Ѓ+Ѕ+І+Љ+Њ+ќјєјє№єыєчє№тн№н№єжвЫh_\hmуhmуhч!h'`I hМSА>* hvmй>*hvmй h")п>*hМSАh")пh'`Ih15%ќ'(Ў(+++Ђ+І+Њ+ѓыыпыыкыЮаdр`аgdЭ~№gdМSАаdр`аgdvmйdрgdmуаdр`аgdМSА ,1hАа/ Ар=!А"А# $ %ААаАаа@@ёџ@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DAђџЁDDefault Paragraph FontRiѓџГRTable Normalі4ж
l4жaі(kєџС(No ListЊ#6џџџџ<='@рў
Gаd
Ї
ЕПмДвШь5ќ Ў ###Ђ#І#Ќ#0000000000000000000000000000000Ц"Њ+5%Њ+Њ+џџіHєgіHL#іHмFіHdjіHGіHєmіH,IіHtЖіHћ!іH\f іHdQ!іHД^#ССШррч!!!###Ќ#
Чггцђђ!!!!!###Ќ#
9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsState8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCity9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceName=
*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceTypehyЦ
WZОСхш!+ос
}
TWOR
##Ќ# ##Ќ#3э5БЃ#Ќ###Ќ#хz6УMч!_\|"s7'`Iы\/vk1МSАњ?Тvmй")пmуЭ~№9єьЌ#џ@##ДЦ##Њ#@@џџUnknownџџџџџџџџџџџџGz џTimes New Roman5Symbol3&z џArial"q№аhѕм'C$дRX@RX@!№ ДД24##2Q№HP)№џ?фџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџ|"2џџ;IMPLEMENTING A CO-TEACHING PROGRAM AS A TIER 1 INTERVENTIONddeddeўџр
ђљOhЋ+'Гй0мшє (4
T`
lxф<IMPLEMENTING A CO-TEACHING PROGRAM AS A TIER 1 INTERVENTIONddeNormaldde5Microsoft Office Word@јћ`A@ц"ГЛѕЬ@ъ№ёZњЬRXўџеЭе.+,љЎ08hp ЈАИРШ
афOregon School District@#'<IMPLEMENTING A CO-TEACHING PROGRAM AS A TIER 1 INTERVENTIONTitle
ўџџџ !"#$ўџџџ&'()*+,ўџџџ./01234ўџџџ§џџџ7ўџџџўџџџўџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџRoot Entryџџџџџџџџ РFpuћZњЬ91TableџџџџџџџџЉWordDocumentџџџџџџџџ.6SummaryInformation(џџџџ%DocumentSummaryInformation8џџџџџџџџџџџџ-CompObjџџџџџџџџџџџџqџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџўџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџџўџ
џџџџ РFMicrosoft Office Word Document
MSWordDocWord.Document.8є9Вq